Straight Vegetable Oil Use in Kerosene Lamps to Mitigate In-door Air Pollution: A Review

Abel Nyakundi Ogari, Hiram Ndiritu, Benson B. Gathitu


The world is facing twin energy-related threatsinadequate
and insecure supplies of energy at affordable prices and
environmental harm caused by inappropriate use of conventional
energy such as fossil fuel. Fossil fuels being non-renewable, have a potential to be exhausted. Moreover, combustion of fossil fuels causes pollutant emissions such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), oxides of sulphur (SOx), oxides of nitrogen NOx) and particulate matter (PM). These emissions have contributed to climate change, global warming and adverse effects on plants and animals.
These emissions are responsible for about 1.6 million deaths of
children per year on top of other respiratory diseases mostly affecting women and children. A lot of research has been done in an effort to come up with renewable energy utilisation so as to replace or reduce fossil fuel use.
Biofuels are good alternatives and research on their use in internal combustion (IC) engines is well advanced. It has been shown that biodiesel can be used in IC engines with no or minor modifications and they emit less CO2, CO and pm with slight reduction in power.
Available literature indicates that biofuel reduce the burning rate of wick cook stoves and reduce smoke. However, very limited research has been done on biofuel use in lamps. No known work has been done on evaluating the performance and emissions from straight vegetable oil/kerosene blends used in pressure lamp. This paper presents a review of literature on performance and emission of kerosene tin lamps, lantern lamps and pressure lamps. The possibility of use of straight vegetable oil in pressure lamps is also examined. The results obtained will provide an insight into the design of a modified pressure lamp running on straight vegetable oil.