D Kimani, P G Kareru, F K Njonge, H L Kutima, G C Nyagah, S O Rechab, R W Wamburu, J M Karanja


Helminthes infestation has been recognised as a major constraint to livestock production. Increasing anthelminticresistance and the impact of conventional anthelmintics on the environment has led to increased interest onethnobotanical approach to come up with new novel compounds. The synthetic drugs are toxic, expensive andsometimes beyond reach of most rural small holder farmers and pastoralists. The economic losses due tohelminthes infestation are enormous and unnecessary since they are preventable. The aim of this study was to testfor in vitro anthelmintic activities of the test plants with the aim of formulating a novel herbal anthelmintic drugfor ruminants. Egg hatch inhibition (EHI) tests were done to test for in vitro anthelminitic activities of ethanolicextracts of Entada leptostachya, Albizia anthelmintica and Prosopis juliflora. Graduated doses of between 0.5 and6 mg/ml were prepared using distilled water as solvent. Fresh nematode eggs were harvested using simple saltfloatation method and eggs of mixed nematode species of Haemonchus spp.,Trichostrongyle spp. andOesophagostomum spp. were obtained. The in vitro anthelmintic activities of the plant extracts were compared toalbendazole. Entada leptostachya inhibition was 91% and 100% and was comparable to albendazole which was98% and 100% at 2 and 6 mg/ml respectively. Albizia anthelmintica showed 100% inhibition and was comparableto albendazole whose inhibition was 100% at 6mg/ml. Prosopis juliflora inhibition was 100% and 97% and wascomparable to albendazole whose inhibition was 98% and 100% at 2 and 6mg/ml respectively. All the three testplants showed lower inhibitory anthelmintic activities at the lower concentrations compared to albendazole. Theethanolic extracts of the three plants have potential as novel anthelmintic drugs for gastro-intestinal nematodes.


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